Need for principle of management is a fundamental truth that provides a guide to thought or action. Management of business has become very complex these days. Managers are expected to deal with a number of problems in their day-to-day working. Some guidelines or principles are needed which will help managers to run their concerns smoothly and efficiently. According to Terry, “Principles of management are to a manager as a table of strengths of materials is to a civil engineer.”
Need For Principles of Management
The following points further highlight the need for principles of management.
1. To Increase Managerial Efficiency. Principles of management have been developed from experiences of various professional people. These principles provide guidelines as to how managers should function in different situations, which in turn increase their efficiency.
2. To Develop the Science of Management. The principles of management make use of scientific methods for observations. They have helped to develop the science of management. In the absence of principles of management, it would not have been possible to develop the organised body of knowledge by management practitioners, thinkers and philosophers.
3. To Train Managers. Management principles are also needed to train mangers. In the seance of principles, the training of managers depends upon trial and error methods. Formalized hods of acquiring training c possible only when there exists a systematized body of specialized knowledge, techniques or principles.
4.To Co-ordinate Material and Human Resources. The principles of management help us is co-ordinate the material and human resources in order to achieve the desired goals or common objectives. Without principles of management, there would be a lot of wastage of resources. The principles of management make optimum utilization of natural resources possible.
5. To Improve Research. The principles of management have helped in increase of knowledge and carrying out of further research in the field of management. These have provided new ideas, imaginations and visions to the organisation. 6. To Attain Social Objectives. Development of management principles have helped to attain the social goals by increasing efficiency in the use of scarce resources, providing good quality products and services at the lowest possible costs.
Universality Of Management Principles
The principles of management are valid for most organisations under most circumstances. They are applicable to private as well as government organisations. The basic aim of every group activity is to get the desired results through integrated human effort.
These basic activities such as planning, organising and controlling are relevant to all organisations, big or small. It is generally believed that principles of management are of universal nature and apply to every type of organisation The principles of management may be used with equal utility by the managers of various organisations and at various levels of management.
There are various authors who have put forth arguments for and against the universality concept of the principles of management:
Arguments in Support of Universality
According to Fredrick Winslow Taylor, the father of Scientific Management. “The fundamental principles of scientific management are applicable to all kinds of human activities from our simplest individual acts to the work of our great corporations”. Henry Fayol was also of the opinion that principles of management are of universal nature and apply to every type of organisation and that is why he has been called Fayol, the Universalist. James Lundy, Harbison and Myres, Koontz, O’Donnel and Theo Haimann have also expressed the views that principles of management have sversal application. The various arguments put forth in favour of the universality of principles of management include:
(i) The principles of management can be transferred from one person to another.
(ii) The principles of management can be applied in all situations and at all times,
(iii) The principles of management are statements of general truths.
(iv) The same principles of management can be applied to all types of organisations and can be transferred from one organisation to another.
(v) The principles of management are applicable to all countries and can be transferred from one country to another.
(vi) The principles of management can be applied with equal utility at various levels of management.
Arguments against Universality
There are certain authors who have expressed their views against the universality of against principles Peter F. Drucker is of the opinion that “the skill, the competence, the Experience of management cannot, as such be transferred and applied to the organisation and running of other institutions.” Ernest Dale, McFarland and Joon Woodward have also criticized the concept of universality of management principles. The main argument put forth against universality are as follows:
(i) the goals of business and non-business organisations are different;
(i) there are different cultures in different countries and hence, principles of management as such cannot be transferred from one country to another;
(iii) different organisations have different problems and as such management principles cannot be transferred from one organisation to another;
(iv) many managers accept this universality of principles in theory but disregard this in practice and
(v) there are inherent difficulties in the exchange and application of management principles.
After examining the arguments put forth in favour of and against universality of principles of management, we can conclude that the principles of management are flexible and capable of adaptation. These principles may be used with equal utility by the managers of various organisations at various levels of management with some minor modifications according to the needs of the organisation.
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